ERIC Number: ED229777
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Improving Audience Learning from Television News through Between-Channel Redundancy.
Reese, Stephen D.
A study tested the effects of between-channel redundancy on television news learning. Redundancy, defined as shared information, was proposed as an explanatory variable that considers the relationship between information in three channels: the audio, the nonverbal pictorial, and visual-verbal print channel. It was hypothesized that pictures would facilitate learning if they reinforced and complemented verbal information, but that adding an additional language channel through captioning would impede learning by forcing a split-attention situation. Network news stories were manipulated to create a 2x2 design with four conditions: (1) redundant pictures and words, (2) nonredundant pictures and words, (3) redundant pictures and words with redundant print, and (4) nonredundant pictures and words with redundant print. Twenty-five undergraduate subjects were assigned to each condition. After viewing the stories, they completed a series of 10 semantic differential-type scales. Results showed that picture-word redundancy increased recall and reduced error, while adding print-impeded learning. The findings suggest that producers should use print information to highlight story concepts and synchronize visuals with their respective word labels. (JL)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Print Awareness
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (66th, Corvalis, OR, August 6-9, 1983).