ERIC Number: ED229615
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-May
Reference Count: 0
Effects of Questions and Instructions on Learning from Text.
Ellis, John A.; And Others
Four experiments were conducted to determine if giving students specific instructions about the nature of the textual material and the final test is as effective as giving them practice questions in learning from text. Subjects for experiments 1 and 2 were 80 San Diego State University students in an introductory psychology course. Subjects for experiments 3 and 4 were 279 Navy enlisted personnel. In all experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a read-only control group, a practice questions group, an instructions group, and a practice questions plus instructions group. The four experiments (1) compared the effect of instructions and practice questions on learning verbatim factual information; (2) replicated the procedures of the first, but used paraphrased-comprehension questions instead of verbatim questions; (3) examined the effects of instructions and practice questions on learning as a conceptual classification task from the text; and (4) replicated the third experiment with revised instructions. Results indicated that instructions can be as effective or more effective than practice questions in learning from text, that instructions control/focus student processing and attention as well as do practice questions, and that the best instructional strategy is a combination of instructions and practice questions. (Instructions used in the experiment are appended.) (YLB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, CA.
Identifiers: Instructions; Learning from Text; Questions