ERIC Number: ED229408
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Evaluating Individualized Programs.
Shiffler, Nancy L.
Several current approaches to evaluation stress the importance of making explicit the conceptual structure of a program--displaying the hierarchically related transactions which explain the program's movement from a set of "inputs" to a set of desired outcomes. However, individualized programs present particular difficulties in establishing this line of causality. When the program is the same for all individuals, everyone receiving the same intervention, then the conceptual structure is also the same for everyone--a common ground exists for the nature of the intervention, the outcomes, and the variables. With individualized programs, the specific interventions, outcomes, and rationale may vary from individual to individual. The common ground is now moved to a different level--the program has a common process for generating a conceptual structure for an intervention with each individual case and a common interest in how well the goals of each intervention are met. As a result, the evaluation of the program as a whole must try to integrate the findings from a set of disparate "programs," all having disparate measures of outcome goals. This paper attempts to define some of the difficulties inherent in these circumstances and to describe their impact on the evaluation for a particular individualized program. (Author)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Special Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Causal Inferences; Intervention By Prescription Project
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (67th, Montreal, Quebec, April 11-15, 1983).