ERIC Number: ED228743
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Feb-26
Reference Count: 0
Should School Administrators Be Leaders or Managers?
Burke, W. Warner
Research in leadership relevant to school administrators is reviewed and summarized here. The author maintains that most previous authors identified two primary leader functions, concerns, types, or dimensions. These authors include Wortman, who, following in the footsteps of Zaleznick, saw a dichotomy between leaders and managers; Burns, who differentiated between transactional and transformational leaders; Bales, who identified task-oriented and socioemotional leader behavior; Blake and Mouton, who renamed these "concern for production" and "concern for people"; Fiedler, who looked at "task-motivated" and "relationship-motivated" behavior as part of his Contingency Theory; and Hersey and Blanchard, who evolved a "purely situational" model. The author notes that there is still debate over whether leadership characteristics are absolute or contingent. Then current research is examined, specifically that of Hall, who found particular characteristics in those who rise to top management ranks, and Spence and Helmreich, who found that the most successful manager or leader will have the best command of both feminine (nurturant) and masculine (directive, task-oriented) behaviors. The paper concludes that the more school administrators serve in an executive capacity, the more they should act as a leader and the less they should act as a manager. (JM)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Contingency Theories
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of School Administrators (Atlantic City, NJ, February 25-28, 1983).