ERIC Number: ED228272
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983
Reference Count: 0
Cognitive and Affective Processes Related to School Achievement: Implications for Assessment.
Shaha, Steven H.; Wittrock, Merlin C.
During the last two decades of work in predicting and explaining school achievement, much research has emphasized the identification and measurement of student cognitive and affective processes which predict and also promise to help explain and facilitate school achievement. This review focuses on modifiable cognitive and affective processes, as different from aptitude and ability. The results summarized represent but do not exhaust the findings of recent research relevant to school achievement. Findings on cognitive processes concern generative comprehension processes, imagery, attention and cognitive style. Affective processes include motivation, self-concept, test anxiety, and attitude. The purpose of this review is not simply to caution or advise test development institutions, but to communicate ideas to test users as well. The contention is that intelligence measures yield data concerning momentary states of knowledge or ability. These static descriptions are interpreted as descriptions of student potential. Yet the evidence in this review shows that the affective and cognitive processes underlying intelligence scores are dynamic in nature, and they can be taught and improved. To predict potential scholastic success and provide remedial information to increase that potential, an emphasis upon cognitive and affective processes is essential and logical, and has been too long waiting. (CM)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Affective Measures, Affective Objectives, Attention, Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Style, Comprehension, Educational Diagnosis, Intelligence Tests, Predictive Measurement, Self Concept, Student Attitudes, Student Motivation, Test Anxiety
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.