ERIC Number: ED226365
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1983-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Freedom of the Press in Europe, 1815-1914. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty.
Goldstein, Robert J.
In 19th century Europe, the dominant classes detested the idea of a free press, seeing it as a middle and lower class weapon. Although repression of the press in Europe existed long before the 19th century, at this time techniques of press repression fell into two major categories: (1) direct--licensing, prior censorship, and post-publication prosecution; and (2) indirect--financial constraints such as security or caution bonds and special press taxes meant to discourage the poor from publishing or buying newspapers. These forms of repression were highly effective in holding down the expression and circulation of opposition opinions in legally printed material and in making the lives of individual journalists miserable. But legal and illegal forms of resistance to press repression prevented these tactics from being entirely effective. Legal forms of resistance included using "Aesopian language" (critical political remarks indirectly made), taking advantage of technicalities and loopholes to avoid penalties, and banding together to overcome high newspaper prices. The two major techniques of illegal resistance were the publishing of clandestine newspapers and the smuggling of forbidden material. In conclusion, it should be noted that not only publishers and journalists, but great numbers of individuals engaged in such defiance. (JL)
Descriptors: European History, Freedom of Speech, Journalism, News Reporting, Newspapers, Political Influences, Social Differences
AEJMC Publications, College of Journalism, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 ($5.00).
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.
Identifiers: Journalism History