ERIC Number: ED223133
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Changing the Pattern of Higher Education Systems: An Account of Access and Structural Policies in the Sixties and Seventies.
Access to higher education in Western industrialized countries in the 1960s and 1970s and structural policies are reviewed, along with policies on institutional patterns in the Federal Republic of Germany and the outcomes of the policies. Higher education policy in almost all Western industrial societies neither expanded in response to the increased number of applicants, nor restricted admissions according to presumed manpower requirements. The dominant reaction was to change the institutional pattern of the growing higher education system. The background of this policy is discussed, and different structural models prevalent in the international debate on changing institutional patterns are explained, as are related policies concerning access to higher education. The competing concepts of the diversified model and the integrated model in West Germany are examined, as are other structural models. Among the reasons that access to higher education was not geared closely to the resumed manpower demand are the following: it was difficult to assess manpower requirements and the quantitative development of higher education, and efforts to reduce inequalities of opportunities competed with the aim of gearing education to manpower requirements. Arguments that have been used against an expansion without structural changes include: educational quality might drop, and governments did not want to increase higher education expenditures corresponding to the rising social demand for higher education. In most Western countries the growing number of students was primarily absorbed by extending the less prestigious sectors of higher education. A bibliography is appended. (SW)
Descriptors: Access to Education, Change Strategies, College Applicants, Comparative Education, Developed Nations, Educational History, Educational Policy, Enrollment Trends, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Industrialization, Institutional Characteristics, Labor Market, Labor Supply, Models, Organizational Theories, Policy Formation, School Organization
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Europe (West); United States; West Germany
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, March 19-23, 1982).