ERIC Number: ED223131
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982
Reference Count: 0
The Impact of Title VII on the Woman in Academic Science.
Etheridge, Sandra Y.
The effect of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on the numbers and status of women in the academic physical sciences is addressed, and historical trends since the beginning of the century regarding the participation of women in education and science are briefly reviewed. The percentage of women doctoral degree recipients grew steadily from 16 percent in 1920 until peaking at 21 percent in 1945, and then declined following World War II, reaching a low of 9 percent in 1954. Although higher education expanded rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s, the science fields, particularly the physical sciences, still do not have a large contingent of women faculty. As originally passed, Title VII prohibited sex discrimination by employers in hiring or firing; in compensation; in terms, conditions, or privileges of employment; or limiting, segregating, or classifying employees or applicants. It is claimed that the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 amendment did not clear up the confusion regarding definition of the goals to be achieved in implementing Title VII. Cases that set the precedent or that directly examined the status of women are reviewed, including two cases involving universities and women in science. Three levels at which cases brought forward under the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment may be considered are: rational relationship, strict scrutiny, and the middle-tier level. Controversy over using the clause is noted. It is concluded that the number of women employed in the physical science departments is not likely to be significantly influenced by current legislation. (SW)
Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Civil Rights Legislation, Compliance (Legal), Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Employment Practices, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Federal Legislation, Females, Government School Relationship, Higher Education, Personnel Policy, Physical Sciences, Science Teachers, Sex Discrimination, Women Faculty
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Civil Rights Act 1964 Title VII; Fourteenth Amendment