ERIC Number: ED221444
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980
Reference Count: 0
Black Women and the Philosophy of "Race Uplift" Prior to Emancipation. Working Paper.
Perkins, Linda M.
The pre-emancipation (1830-1865) black woman reformer was concerned with race "uplift," a sense of duty and obligation to her race. Black women in the North formed mutual aid societies for the economic survival of the destitute. Regardless of economic status, free blacks consistently sought to aid slaves in the South; the poor often saved for years to purchase their relatives. Some black women, Harriet Tubman, for example, worked toward helping slaves escape to the North. While both white and black women formed charitable organizations, it is commonly agreed that black women organized for survival and self-improvement while white women's organizations were mainly self-serving. Even though the women's rights movement began at this time, black women were excluded from it. Education became a primary concern of race "uplift" as blacks sought to erase the myth of intellectual inferiority. Because whites were reluctant to teach blacks anything but rudimentary skills, black teachers for black students became an important issue. Black women worked both toward the establishment of formal schools and of educational organizations which provided for adult education. In fact, education became the major force in creating black nationalism. (Author/KC)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Radcliffe Coll., Cambridge, MA. Mary Ingraham Bunting Inst.
Note: For a related document, see SO 014 280.