ERIC Number: ED219943
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982
Reference Count: N/A
Language Policies in American Education: A Historical Overview.
Brisk, Maria Estela
The history of American education is marked by attempts to grapple with the U.S. multilingual and multicultural situation. Bilingual education can be traced from the time of the first migration from Asia which formed the strain of the native American, through the migrations from Europe and Africa, to the influx of immigrants from all over the world during the 19th century. Strategies used by educational institutions to cope with the situation, as well as strategies used by the specific linguistic group exercising pressure, have varied throughout history. Historically, native American languages have been officially repressed; today they are being revived. Sectarian schools established by the 19th century immigrants used texts in their native languages. The non-European migration came about due to the need for cheap labor; linguistically, the result was formation of creole languages. During most of the 19th century, multilingual education and cultural diversity enjoyed considerable tolerance. However, after 1880 the "melting-pot" became the ideal and the official requirement to use English included and went beyond education. Since 1960, sociocultural and political factors have brought pressures that have resulted in federal legislation on bilingual education and many agencies to implement it. (AMH)
Descriptors: American Indian Languages, Bilingual Education, Creoles, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Policy, Federal Legislation, Immigrants, Language Attitudes, Migration, Minority Group Influences, Multilingualism, Political Influences, Socioeconomic Influences, United States History
Not available separately; see FL 013 091.
Publication Type: Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, Cambridge, MA.
Identifiers: Bilingual Education Act 1968