ERIC Number: ED218215
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Cognitive Style Revisited: Implications for Research in Art Production and Art Criticism.
This paper briefly reviews the concept of cognitive style and then analyzes Witkin's theory on Psychological Differentiation, examining its possible use for research in art education. Cognitive style refers to individual differences in the processes by which knowledge is acquired. According to Witkin's Psychological Differentiation theory, "Field-Independent" (FI) persons are more likely to use internal referents as primary guides in information processing, and "Field-Dependent" (FD) persons use more external referents. For example, FI persons have an internalized frame of reference as a guide to self-definition. They use themselves as referents. FD persons, on the other hand, require externally defined goals and reinforcement. A list of the most basic characteristics and behaviors of FD and FI persons is provided. Inferences regarding these behaviors and their manifestations in art processes are then made, and suggestions for future areas of research in art education are recommended. For example, FD individuals tend to excel in interpersonal and social competencies as compared to FI persons. These social tendency orientations have implications for art education. One question for study might be: To what extent does social tendency orientation affect choice of subject matter, mode of expression, and approach to problem solving? (RM)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Psychological Differentiation; Witkin (H A)
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, March 19-23, 1982).