ERIC Number: ED216434
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Mar
Reference Count: 0
The Ambiguous Transformation: Federal Education Policy and the Second Reconstruction.
Graham, Hugh Davis
Analysis of changes in federal education policy in the 1960s, based on archival research and other sources, suggests a reinterpretation of the causes of the success or failure of the new federal programs. A review of the literature on these "Great Society" educational policies finds that most authors feel the policies sprang from a coalescence of legislative, racial, religious, and presidential factors in the mid-1960s. Archival evidence on that period, however, points to three further factors: the activist role of the federal budget bureau on task forces formulating educational policy; federal economic advisors' call for an expansionary budget in 1965; and President Lyndon Johnson's practice of proposing new Great Society programs while underfunding the old ones. The new policies also created "iron triangles" of educational interest groups that helped replace old federal education bureaucracies with new ones. Based on a perspective from the 1980s, an evaluation of the Great Society educational programs concludes that most have worked poorly, been underfunded and over-ambitious, and tended to resegregate some of their beneficiaries. Evaluation from an even longer perspective, however, may show that the programs worked. (Author/RW)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research; Historical Materials
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation, Austin, TX.; National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Bureau of the Budget; Great Society; Interest Groups; Task Force Approach
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, March 19-23, 1982).