ERIC Number: ED216331
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982-Jun
Reference Count: 0
Text Processing Differences among Readers.
Explanations for differences in reading proficiency should be constructed around an atlas of reading-related individual differences in cognition. Such an atlas should include well-documented "bottom-up", text-driven reading strategies and less thoroughly investigated "top-down", schema-driven reading strategies. Research findings suggest the following differences in the use of text-processing strategies among good and poor readers: (1) good readers both report and demonstrate spontaneous use of text lookbacks to retrieve unrecalled information needed to resolve a cognitive task, whereas poor readers generally do not; (2) in making wise decisions about allocation of cognitive effort, good readers are better than novices in choosing intermediate-level information in text as external memory aids, in selecting segments previously found difficult for extra study, and in spending more study time on difficult stories than on easy reading strategies and less thoroughly investigated "top-down," ones; (3) good readers have a greater facility for summarizing text; and (4) good readers, more than poor readers, seem to have a repertoire of strategic behaviors that begins with a clear focus on meaning, including practiced monitoring of comprehension failure. This list needs to be extended to include differences about what learners are actually doing while processing the text (i.e., "top-down" processes). Researchers need to seek behavioral indices of strategic use to corroborate reported use, to separate the effects of development and of proficiency level, and to use some real-life "open-book" tasks so that results can be generalized to the critical school learning demands that learners face daily. (HOD)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Reading Strategies; Schemata
Note: Paper presented at the Reading Symposium on "Factors Related to Reading Performance" (Milwaukee, WI, June 10-11, 1982).