ERIC Number: ED215404
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1982
Reference Count: N/A
Discipline by Grade Reduction and Grade Denial Based on Attendance.
Liggett, Lee B.
The doctrine of in loco parentis (that school authorities stand in the place of a parent while a child is attending school) was always used to measure the rights of authorities relative to student conduct. In 1969, however, the Supreme Court rang the death knell for unrestricted control by school officials over students in its decision on "Tinker v. Des Moines." Several cases since then have established that there must be a reasonable basis for school rules, that due process must be observed, and that standards of conduct must be consistent with constitutional safeguards. The available cases on grade reductions and grade denials for disciplinary and truancy problems indicate that these actions are subject to due process consideration. Thus, the board of education's policy on disciplinary actions that could directly affect a student's academic standing must be clear and definite. Since class attendance and participation constitute a valuable portion of the education offered in public schools, it seems appropriate that a school board establish a minimum number of days in attendance as part of the academic requirements for promotion. (Author/WD)
Descriptors: Attendance, Court Litigation, Discipline Policy, Due Process, Elementary Secondary Education, Grade Repetition, Grades (Scholastic), Student Behavior, Student Promotion, Student Rights
Not available separately; see EA 014 500.
Publication Type: Books; Legal/Legislative/Regulatory Materials
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Topeka, KS.
Note: Chapter 4 of "School Law in Changing Times" (EA 014 500). For related documents, see EA 014 500-521.