ERIC Number: ED213096
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Reference Count: 0
An Examination of Cooperative Organizational Behavior and the Functions of Executives in Formal Organizations: The Theory of Chester Irving Barnard and Its Implications for Educational Administration. A Research Paper.
Mathews, Gary S.
Chester Barnard (1886-1961) was an executive and an early organizational theorist. His theory of organizational behavior and executive functions, set forth primarily in "The Functions of the Executive" (1938), comprises both structural concepts, related to how an organization is structured, and dynamic concepts, related to individuals' interactions with their organizations. Among the structural concepts is that of cooperative systems, defined as two or more persons cooperating for a definite end. One kind of cooperative system is the formal organization, which is based on three important elements: members' willingness to cooperate, common purposes, and communication. Barnard emphasizes incentives as means of gaining individuals' willingness to cooperate. Informal organizations are another cooperative system, intimately connected to formal organizations. The executive's role in a formal organization involves gaining cooperation, defining purposes, and providing a system of communication. Significant aspects of executives' functions include leadership, decision-making, authority, and responsibility. Many of Barnard's concepts are applicable to educational administration, including formal and informal organizations, incentives, open communications, organizational authority, and executive responsibility. (Author/RW)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
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