ERIC Number: ED209747
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Reference Count: N/A
Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John
Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into their major parts or forces. According to the authors, once a problem is broken down into its components, an administrator can more easily plot a course toward its solution. The second problem-solving technique, the nominal group technique, is characterized as a means of generating alternative solutions to problems by asking group members to first formulate solutions independently, then share and discuss them. Applications of the technique and its advantages over conventional brainstorming techniques are described. The third problem-solving technique presented here, the Delphi technique, is described as a way to develop consensus on complex issues. According to the authors, several experts are asked to respond to a series of questionnaires that usually funnel the group toward consensus on the issue being discussed. Variations of the technique and several applications in schools are described. (Author/JM)
Descriptors: Decision Making, Elementary Secondary Education, Force Field Analysis, Participation, Problem Solving, Program Development
Not available separately; see EA 014 193.
Publication Type: ERIC Publications; Guides - Non-Classroom; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
Identifiers: Brainstorming; Consensus; Delphi Technique; Ellenstown School District WA; Nominal Group Technique; Paramus Public Schools NJ; Skyline Wide Educational Plan
Note: Revised version of ED 151 894. Chapter 12 of "School Leadership" (EA 014 193). For related documents, see EA 014 193-204 and ED 189 680.