ERIC Number: ED209718
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978-Aug
Reference Count: N/A
Major Reforms of the Swedish Education System: 1950-1975. Staff Working Paper No. 290.
Heidenheimer, Arnold J.
To develop a mass education structure that met the goals of both equality and efficiency, Sweden carried out extensive educational reforms between 1950 and 1975, starting at lower educational levels and moving in gradual staqes to the highest levels. This report looks at the background, nature, and history of these reforms. Its chapter on the economic and political background of the reforms notes Sweden's economic development and gradual nationalization of national income in this period, as well as the success of the ruling Social Democrats at staying in power and building pro-reform alliances with elementary teachers, labor, and other political parties. The next chapter examines the creation of single nine-year comprehensive schools from separate elementary and lower secondary schools between 1950 and 1970. The report then describes the changes in upper secondary schools from 1960 to the early 1970s, when academic "gymnasium" schools were combined with vocational-technical schools. Following is an analysis of the attempts in the 1970s to restructure higher education by combining academic and "practical" education and by opening universities to a wider range of students. The final chapter briefly considers the implications of Sweden's experiences for other nations. (RW)
Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Economic Factors, Educational Change, Educational History, Educational Innovation, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Politics, Postsecondary Education, Vocational Education
The World Bank, Publications Unit, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433 ($5.00).
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: World Bank, Washington, DC.