ERIC Number: ED209214
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Jul
Reference Count: 0
Models of Adaptive Instruction: A Handbook for College and University Teachers.
Ross, Steven M.; Wasicsko, Mark
The various methods of adaptive instruction can provide college faculty with options for tailoring educational experiences according to the learning situation. In conventional, lecture-type instruction, the pace and difficulty level is the same for all students, allowing for no individualization. By encouraging the students to take responsibility for certain facets of instruction, flexibility can be built into courses, adapting to individual pace, interests, and learning style. Three types of fully adaptive systems have become well-known, each with advantages. In each of the instructional systems, the instructor arranges the conditions for learning but, to some degree, leaves the major decisions about when, where, and pacing, up to the student. Programmed Instruction (PI) was developed by B. F. Skinner in the 1950s. It is characterized by learning frames, teacher-developed units of instruction that use positive reinforcement and immediate feedback. F. S. Keller, a follower of Skinner, developed the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), which has the following components: (1) self pacing; (2) unit perfection; (3) former students as proctors; (4) emphasis on written materials; (5) criterion-referenced testing and grading; and (6) retesting for achieving mastery. Although student procrastination is a problem in PSI, studies comparing this method with conventional classes overwhelmingly favored PSI. The third adaptive instruction model is computer assisted instruction, a system that demands knowledge of equipment (hardware) and programs and methods (software). Depending on the program, computers are interactive and flexible, have infinite patience, and can be prescriptive--an excellent method for drilling and practice. All three methods can be successfully incorporated into an existing mode of instruction. (FG)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Keller Plan; Skinner (B F)
Note: Developed for Freed-Hardeman College, Title III Grant "Strengthening Developing Institutions Program."