ERIC Number: ED207727
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr-16
Reference Count: 0
Bilingual Education Community Study: Implementing Bilingual Education in an Urban Midwestern Context.
Guskin, Judith T.
Historical, linguistic, cultural, and political variables are important in understanding the development and implementation of Milwaukee urban bilingual education programs, established in 1969 and including kindergarten through 12th grades at 11 elementary and 4 secondary schools. Hispanics comprise 6% of school enrollment (5,334 pupils, of whom over 2,200 are in bilingual programs) including students directly from Mexico and Puerto Rico; those who followed step migration from the Southwest, East, or other midwestern cities; and many born in Milwaukee who have limited English proficiency or whose parents desire them to become fully bilingual. Over 70% of Milwaukee's Hispanics reside in one of three areas in the city. Bilingual programs in neighborhood schools are seen as essential to building community pride. The history of other ethnic groups in some now predominantly Hispanic areas, and the image Milwaukeeans have of their city as an ethnic city of good will may affect support for bilingual programs. The black drive for educational equity has used various strategies to confront those who hold power and to gain resources for community programs; this, among other things, has led to growing consciousness and increasing cohesiveness in the Hispanic community which have made implementation of educational reform possible. (AW/MH)
Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Bilingual Education, Blacks, Community Attitudes, Community Study, Cultural Influences, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Equal Education, Ethnic Relations, Hispanic Americans, Local History, Mexican Americans, Mexicans, Migration Patterns, Political Influences, Puerto Ricans, Spanish Speaking, Urban Areas, Urban Culture, Urban Education
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Bilingual Programs; Wisconsin (Milwaukee)
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Los Angeles, CA, April 16, 1981).