ERIC Number: ED206971
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-May
Reference Count: 0
The Search for Disconfirming Information in Memory-Based Person Judgments.
Dukerich, Janet M; And Others
A topic of increasing interest in social cognition is the manner in which individuals organize information about others in their memories and then access the information when making a decision. In the first study, subjects made both negatively and positively phrased judgments; trait set size was then varied as a within-subjects factor while decision type (success or failure) was varied as a between-subjects factor. Results suggest that people search their memory for disconfirming evidence when making memory-based judgments. A second experiment manipulated the type of judgment subjects had to make as a within-subjects factor. When subjects did not know what kind of judgment they would have to make, the congruency hypothesis was not supported. The opportunity to functionally encode information as potentially incongruent with a future decision may determine whether a search for disconfirming evidence will occur. Only in those relatively infrequent cases when individuals clearly know what future judgment is needed will information be encoded as potentially incongruent and be examined for disconfirming evidence prior to reaching a decision. (JAC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Organizational Effectiveness Research Program.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association (53rd, Detroit, MI, April 30-May 2, 1981).