ERIC Number: ED206442
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Aug-26
Reference Count: 0
Leadership in Indian Education: What Is Needed?
Foster, Carl G.; Twitchell, Wirt B.
Competent leadership is an integral ingredient for the enhancement of Indian education. Definitions of leadership and categories of leadership styles are variable. Leadership, an elusive term subjectively applied to emphasize an individual's pattern of action or inaction, has been viewed by researchers in many ways. Some feel it is composed of traits present at birth, while others believe it exists in all phases of institutional and personal interactions. Categorization of leadership styles has been attempted by various researchers. Getzels et al (1968) categorized leadership into three styles: normative, when institutional goals are paramount and employee goals are secondary; personal, when employee goals are primary; and transactional, when different situations call for different styles. Kunz and Hoy (1976) delineated leadership to zones of professional acceptance by the leader and the participants. Their research showed that female teachers were more accepting of directives than male teachers, and that teachers who taught in non-academic areas were more accepting of directives than teachers working in purely academic settings. Strong leadership in the Bureau of Indian Affairs must be present to ensure that American Indian education will experience positive change. Diverse leadership styles are necessary to adequately determine and establish quality Indian education. (AW)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A