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ERIC Number: ED205871
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-May
Pages: 9
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Collegiate Swimmers: Sex Differences in Self Reported and Physiological Stress Indices.
Gackenbach, Jayne
Research has suggested that sex role identity is a major factor in sports anxiety across the sexes. Sex and sex role differences in sports anxiety as expressed by collegiate swimmers prior to competition were investigated on both self-report and physiological levels. An hour before practice and competition the blood pressures of 13 female and 14 male swimmers were taken. Subjects also completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist twice to measure anxiety, hostility and depression and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to indicate subjects' relative masculinity and femininity. Consistent with sex role prescriptions, males had higher systolic blood pressure than females, yet they reported lower feelings of anxiety and hostility when facing swimming competition. Results of a comparison of BSRI data from these swimmers and 50 male and 50 female college students suggested that higher than average levels of masculinity were associated with individuals who swam competitively in college, regardless of sex. The lack of emotional expression among male swimmers, consistent with their role definition of masculinity, may have resulted in higher blood pressures associated with competition. (NRB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association (53rd, Detroit, MI, April 30-May 2, 1981).