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ERIC Number: ED201930
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Sep
Pages: 19
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
The Price of a Token.
Yoder, Janice D.; And Others
As women enter nontraditional occupations and training programs, tokenism may develop and its side-effects of visibility, contrast, and assimilation may appear. Each of these effects was encountered by the first class of women cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, in 1976, who received great visibility from the news media. This visibility led to fears and resentment in dominant male cadets and placed performance pressures on the token women. Cadets' concerns about dating best reflected the effects of contrast; the social interaction of men and women created uncertainties for the men and isolation for the women. The stereotype of women's physical subordination encouraged men to simultaneously protect women, yet fear preferential treatment and a lowering of Academy standards. The protection of female cadets most clearly demonstrated the assimilation of individual cadets into the stereotypical helpless role of women. An investigation of the men and women who entered West Point from 1976 to 1980 showed that increased numbers of women, institutional supports, changes in the dominant group, and cohesivess among tokens reduced the problems initially experienced by the token women. (Author/NRB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Military Academy (West Point) NY
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (88th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, September 1-5, 1980). Best copy available.