ERIC Number: ED201567
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Reference Count: 0
Judicial Review of Citizenship Education in Nineteenth Century American Schools.
Michel, George J.
This paper traces the Supreme Court's powers of judicial review in the 19th century and considers its relation to citizenship education. The 19th century was selected as the major focus because it was during this century that the Court attempted to establish its powers of review and generally to reaffirm judicial powers. Also, the controversy over how citizenship should be taught was particularly active during this century. Various influences from earlier periods were apparent, including the family-oriented citizenship teachings of colonial days, Christian citizenship beliefs from pre-Revolutionary days; the belief that good citizens were developed through early education in the sciences, morals, and manners; and the notion that citizenship education was best accomplished through informal talks and exposing students to moral mottos hung on classroom walls. Among the 19th century teacher-training institutions, there appeared to be little distinction between morals and Christian values when it came to defining citizenship education. And, with regard to individual teacher religious/moral beliefs and behavior, it was widely believed that teachers should be models of good citizenship and high moral character because children were more influenced by example than by moral or good citizenship stories. Although the Supreme Court never addressed the question of citizenship education in the 19th century (except as it indirectly involved the teachings of the Mormon religion), it did take the stand on a number of occasions that the federal government had the power to review citizens' behavior. In addition, the Supreme Court generally supported the states' right to control citizenship education for students in public schools throughout the 19th century. (DB)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Governor's State Univ., Park Forest, IL. Coll. of Human Learning and Development.
Identifiers: Judicial Evaluation Approach; Ninenteenth Century; Supreme Court
Note: Paper presented at Eastern Educational Research Association (Philadelphia, PA, March 1981).