ERIC Number: ED201448
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr-15
Reference Count: 0
Counseling with American Indians: A Review of the Literature with Methodological Considerations.
Trimble, Joseph E.; Lee, D. John
Although there are few studies that include empirical information on the subject of counseling American Indians, an informative and provocative literature base exists. The literature deals with appropriateness of techniques, the delivery of mental health services, the operation and programming of Indian service delivery units (including Indian paraprofessionals and traditional healers), program concepts involving collaborative efforts and use of specialized techniques, encapsulation (including a disregard for cultural variations among clients) of counselors of American Indians, and culturally effective counseling. However, despite the fact that journals are published monthly on research into the counseling process, comparison of various techniques available, and counseling special populations, it is questionable whether the counseling profession can claim a data base firm enough to support any generalized theory. This is due to methodological difficulties and theoretical disagreements in the field. The availability of community-based research paradigms and an illuminative evaluation technique (Dinges, Trimble, Manson, and Pasquale) provide the researcher with adequate directives to avoid methodological pitfalls. The awareness and flexibility demanded of the scientists in conducting ecological research necessitates collaboration with fellow professionals and the community. (CM)
Descriptors: American Indians, Bias, Community Involvement, Coping, Counseling, Counseling Services, Counseling Techniques, Counselor Attitudes, Counselor Client Relationship, Counselor Training, Cross Cultural Training, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Background, Cultural Differences, Ethnicity, Minority Groups, Research Methodology, Research Needs
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (Los Angeles, CA, April 15, 1981).