ERIC Number: ED200719
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981
Reference Count: 0
Racial Interest in the Education of Black Adults, Manhattan, 1880-1931.
Morgan, Charlotte T.
Various agencies contributed to the education of black adults in Manhattan (New York City) during the period 1880-1930. Most of these programs were centered in Harlem as that area became home to vastly increasing numbers of black people. Organizations which contributed to adult education included the churches with their "lyceums," which offered social and cultural activities; the public schools, which offered mainly elementary education courses and some sewing and trade courses; social organizations such as the YMCA, the YWCA, and the National Urban League; and the public library. The quality of these programs was limited, however. The use of racial history or culture was consciously espoused by few, but carried out as an assumption in many of the programs. Activities in black Manhattan reflected American adult education practice in terms of multiplicity of sponsorship, problems of marginality, and significance of leadership. In addition, certain truisms were demonstrated: first, multiservice organizations provide popular learning environments with great flexibility, but institutional mission affects program development; and second, community involvement in program development facilitates participation. Analysis of the history of the programs also showed that propagation of education with a racial focus will attract students, but it may not necessarily improve their lives. (KC)
Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Adult Learning, Adults, Black Culture, Black Education, Black History, Blacks, Church Programs, Church Role, Community Centers, Community Education, Courses, Educational Development, Educational History, Educational Planning, Educational Practices, Program Development, Public Schools, Racial Attitudes, Racial Bias, Racial Discrimination, Racial Identification, School Role, Secondary Education, Social Agencies
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: New York (Harlem); New York (Manhattan)
Note: Paper presented at the Lifelong Learning Research Conference (College Park, MD, February 6-7, 1981).