ERIC Number: ED200631
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Item Bias Issues: Background, Problems, and Where We Are Today.
Diamond, Esther E.
As test standards and research literature in general indicate, definitions of test bias and item bias vary considerably, as do the results of existing methods of identifying biased items. The situation is further complicated by issues of content, context, construct, and criterion. In achievement tests, for example, content validity may impose demands that necessitate inclusion of some items identified as biased or marginally biased. Or--a question raised by a number of researchers--after biased items have been eliminated or, within the limitations of content requirements, have been balanced with items biased in the other direction, does the test measure the same construct for each group under consideration? Other questions involve the assessment of test fairness in the presence of external criteria and in the absence of such criteria, as well as the determination of what constitutes an adequate criterion measure. The state of the art with reference to these questions and to the issues of social justice associated with test bias is reviewed, as well as procedures employed by various publishers of achievement and aptitude tests to detect item bias and to minimize bias in the final tests. (Author/RL)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Content Validity; Criterion Related Validity; Social Justice; Test Publishers
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (65th, Los Angeles, CA, April 13-17, 1981).