ERIC Number: ED199284
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1981-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Effort Attribution: The Direction Makes a Difference.
Schunk, Dale H.
The present experiment tested the hypothesis that effort attribution given for prior achievement is effective in promoting subsequent achievement behaviors. Forty children drawn from two elementary schools and lacking in subtraction skills received training and opportunities to solve subtraction problems. In the context of training, children received effort attribution for prior achievement, attribution for future achievement, or no attribution. Results showed that attribution for prior achievement led to more rapid training progress, greater skill development, higher percepts of self-efficacy, and more accurate self-appraisal of capabilities. In contrast, attribution for future achievement did not influence children's achievement outcomes. The results demonstrate important differences in outcomes as a result of how effort is linked with achievement. Effort attribution may have complex effects including the possibilities that the two forms of attribution differ in: (1) social reinforcement value; and (2) the type of performance feedback they provide to children. A third complexity relates to the idea that effort attribution is most effective with tasks perceived as intermediate in difficulty. The need for future research clarifying how these effects occur is suggested. (Author/RL)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (65th, Los Angeles, CA, April 13-17, 1981).