ERIC Number: ED198644
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Policy Development in an Urban School District--An Outsider's View from Within.
Holt, Howard B.
There appears to be a need for more significant involvement of the community and the school board in all stages of policy development. Policy is defined as a value-laden term, while administration deals with the determination of how policy should be interpreted in a given situation. Local policy development is affected by several forces that restrict the freedom to act: social forces, including population, economics, and international tension. It is also affected by the force of philosophical commitment to such things as civil rights, the gifted, and the handicapped and restraining forces such as state and federal law, court decisions, and media attention. Three distinct methods of policy development have been established. The first is the classical model, which consists of defining the problem, analyzing it, establishing data, testing alternatives, selecting and implementing the choice, and evaluating the results. Incremental decision-making data, and evaluating the results. Incremental decision-making is the second method, which focuses only on the policies that differ from existing policies, and considers a limited number of alternatives. Mixed scanning is the third method, and is a synthesis of the first two. A brief case study indicates that the demand for greater involvement requires the consideration of conflicting forces in the policy development process. (Author/JK)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Professors of Educational Administration (Norfolk, VA, August 10-15, 1980).