ERIC Number: ED194942
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Nov
Reference Count: 0
Increasing Instructional Effectiveness: Reducing Classroom Apprehension.
Ishii, Satoshi; Klopf, Donald
Research shows that a very large percentage of Japanese university students are apprehensive about communicating orally, to the degree that their fear may be debilitating, weakening their effectiveness as oral interactants in social and classroom situations. This uneasiness with speech has been culturally ingrained for centuries. Children are trained to be silent, and much of Japanese society reinforces that training. Although speaking is the primary means of communication, many students' apprehension overrides their desire to learn to speak well in a second language, and they tend to avoid classroom speaking situations. The emphasis on reading and writing drills in second language instruction and the instructor's own apprehension only add to the students' poor language acquisition. Second language instruction should place greater emphasis on oral communication by arranging, in the classroom, social situations where students can practice spontaneous and effective speaking. These situations may progress from simple dyadic encounters to more complex group and public speaking encounters. Simple muscle relaxation exercises at the beginning of the class period may also help to put the apprehensive student more at ease with speaking. (HTH)
Descriptors: Classroom Communication, Communication Apprehension, Communication Problems, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Language Acquisition, Language Proficiency, Language Skills, Learning Problems, Oral Language, Second Language Instruction, Second Language Learning, Second Languages, Skill Development, Speech Skills
Publication Type: Information Analyses; Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Japan; Japanese People
Note: Paper presented at the International Conference of the Japan Association of Language Teachers on Language Teaching/Learning (Nagoya, Japan, November 22-24, 1980).