ERIC Number: ED194941
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979
Reference Count: 0
An Historical Evaluation of the Control Strategy of Indian Delegations' Visits.
Harwood, Glenn R.
Following passage of legislation to end the practice of drawing up treaties with the American Indians in 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant implemented a "Peace Policy" aimed at persuading the Indians of the uselessness of resistance. The Indian delegations' visits to Washington were one tactic in the control strategy the government used to placate the Indian nations. The purpose in bringing successive groups of chiefs to Washington was to impress them with the strength of the government and the wealth and power of the whites. If the Indians chose not to conform to government counterpersuasion, the decision-makers could maintain that the agitators would not listen to reason, and thus gain implicit approval for other control strategies. The spoken responses of the delegation chiefs were concilliatory, but the chiefs' ability to persuade other Indians to cease resistance was overestimated. Although the expenses of the delegation were far less than those for maintaining a cavalry, the Indian delegation tactic was ineffective, as chiefs such as Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull continued violent resistance. The delegation was, however, useful to Grant's administration in that it allowed a policy shift to violent suppression. Grant's "Peace Policy" effectively ended with the defeat of the calvary at Little Big Horn in 1876. (HTH)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Oglala Sioux (Tribe)