ERIC Number: ED193291
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Standards and the Development of Professions: Implications for Educational Evaluation.
Adams, David W.
Basic ways in which standards are generated and/or applied in developing professions are identified. Analysis of six sociologically defined characteristics of professions yields six generalized roles standards play in the establishment, development and maintenance of occupations as professions. The six central characteristics are: (1) definite, essential social service; (2) special, elaborate conceptual base; (3) extended special training; (4) autonomy and personal responsibility in practice; (5) dedication to clients over personal gain; and (6) identity, protection, and enforcement through a specialized organization. In turn, standards operate in legitimating the social value of occupations; establishing the credibility and authority of conceptual bases of practice; determining the adequacy of training programs and the qualifications of trainees; defining the boundaries of expert authority and professional responsibility; defining the conditions of faithful service to clients; and defining common values which underlie organizational identity, protection, and enforcement. These generalized roles are applied to practices in educational evaluation to raise fundamental questions about the possibility and desirability of professionalizing educational evaluation. (Author/GK)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Professional Autonomy; Professional Role
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (64th, Boston, MA, April 7-11, 1980).