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ERIC Number: ED191940
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Jul
Reference Count: 0
More Hurdles to Clear: Women and Girls in Competitive Athletics.
Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
This publication reviews the history of women and girls in athletics, assesses the current status of female participation in high school and college competitive athletics, and summarizes recent policy interpretations by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The historical review focuses on American attitudes toward female physicality from the Victorian era to the present. Current obstacles to female participation in sports are identified as sex stereotyping of athletics as unfeminine, the idea that females should not engage in strenuous activity, and discrimination in the allocation of resources for sports. The role of Title IX (which prohibits sex discrimination in Federally-assisted education programs) in ameliorating discrimination in athletics is explained. Changes in female participation in competitive athletics since 1970 are described and related to the implementation of Title IX. Participation figures, by sex, are presented separately for high schools, two year colleges, and four year colleges, and are broken down individually for football, baseball/softball, basketball, tennis, and track. Also described are college budget allocations for men's and women's intercollegiate sports. Appended to the report are statistical tables and discussions and regulations concerning DHEW's jurisdiction under Title IX. (GC)
Publication Type: Legal/Legislative/Regulatory Materials; Numerical/Quantitative Data; Reports - General
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
Identifiers: Department of Health Education and Welfare; Title IX Education Amendments 1972
Note: Footnotes and Appendix C.1 may be marginally legible due to small print.