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ERIC Number: ED190254
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Jan
Pages: 12
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Maternal Influence in the Formation of Sex Identity and Gender Role Designation Among Differently Sexed Twins, Triplets and Quadruplets.
Goshen-Gottstein, Esther R.
Sex-determined differences in socialization were investigated in seven families, two of which contained twins, two of which contained triplets and three of which contained quadruplets. Two psychologists observed the families in their homes from the infants fifth month of age until the children were 3 1/2 to 6 years of age. Children's dependency, helping, and aggressive behaviors and mothers' positive and negative reinforcements of dependency and aggression and her requests for children's assistance were evaluated per visit on a 3-point scale. In addition, children's clothes, hairstyles and play activities were noted, as were the different names and descriptions mothers used in relation to each child. Results indicated that: (1) mothers reinforced boys more often (and discouraged them less) than girls for dependency, but there were no sex differences in dependency behavior; (2) mothers requested assistance from girls more frequently than from boys, and girls behavior was more helpful than that of boys; (3) sex-differentiation in mothers' responses to aggression was not significant, nor were sex differences in aggressive behavior; (4) children who were the odd ones among their multiple-birth siblings in terms of their sex were referred to by sexual labels more often than the majority children; (5) differences in attire appeared around the third year of age; and (6) sex-differentiation in parental responses to their children's play was not significant, although participation in religious activities by the children was sex-differentiated. (Author/SS)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Israel; Quadruplets; Triplets
Note: Paper presented at the meeting of the International Congress on Early Childhood Education (Tel Aviv, Israel, January 6-10, 1980).