ERIC Number: ED188812
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977
Reference Count: 0
The Crippler: Frostbite.
Part of a series of home literacy readers, written in a conversational style, and widely illustrated, this booklet is directed at the Alaskan environment where the severely cold climate makes frostbite an immediate danger. Frostbite is freezing of the living body. The first symptom is frostnip. Skin becomes red, then white or gray, and it retains indentations. Flesh may tingle, be numb, or feel hot. When the flesh has frozen solid and lost sensation it is frostbitten. The extremities are subject to loss from freezing since they are most readily exposed. Noses, hands, and feet can be warmed with palms, armpits, and belly. Similarly, body-heat, breath, wraps, tepid moving water, and warm liquids (but not liquor) can be used to thaw flesh without harm. Harmful, on the other hand, are tobacco smoking, heating frozen parts with dry heat (fire), rubbing them with or without snow, or refreezing them. Walking on frozen feet will not further harm the feet, but a thawed toe or foot makes a person a litter case. Internal organs freeze from drinking (liquid) liquor below water's freezing point of +32F; it freezes below -70F. The best treatment is preventive: wearing boots, layers of clothes, and wind-breaking head covers, not running in extreme cold, not putting mouth or hands to cold metal, and going inside upon feeling cold or pain. Waiting in a warm car on the road for help, and/or getting frostbite cases to a hospital also minimize frostbite risks. (SC)
Descriptors: Adult Education, Alaska Natives, Alcoholic Beverages, American Indians, Elementary Secondary Education, Fatigue (Biology), Fuels, Heat Recovery, Human Body, Illustrations, Literacy Education, Outdoor Education, Physical Disabilities, Safety Education, Thermal Environment, Transportation
Environmental Health Branch, Alaska Area Native Health Service, Box 7-741, Anchorage, AK 99501 (free to Native Americans)
Publication Type: Guides - Classroom - Learner; Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Literacy Council of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Identifiers: Alaska; Frostbite; Survival Skills
Note: Adapted from material provided by the Tanana Valley Chapter, American Red Cross and Alaska Native Health Service, Tanana Service Unit, Fairbanks, AK. For related documents, see RC 012 080-84.