ERIC Number: ED184964
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1979-Nov-30
Reference Count: 0
The Evolution and Probable Future of Ethnic Heritage Studies.
Anderson, James M.
This paper presents the educational history of the Title IX Ethnic Heritage Studies Program. The paper is based on the author's doctoral dissertation from the University of Michigan, 1978, entitled "Government Support to Ethnicity." The first part of the paper places the development of the ethnic studies program in historical perspective. Historically, the concepts of race, nationality and ethnicity have neither been clearly defined nor equitably treated in U.S. government policy. Slavery was tolerated for almost 100 years, and prior to 1871, American Indian tribes were legally viewed as conquered nations to whom the government owned protection under its signed treaties. Prior to 1968, the federal government had no special programs or policies for children who lacked English language proficiency. The second part of the paper discusses the legislation that created the Ethnic Heritage Studies Program which is the result of a long process of national and local organization, private financing, and a shift in public consciousness. The movement to create a federal program for ethnicity has its roots in the black consciousness and social revolutions of the 1960's. The ethnic studies program became official on June 23, 1972 when the bill was signed by President Nixon. However, no funds were appropriated until 1974. The accomplishments of the Title IX program from 1974 to the present are many. It has initiated over 300 ethnic activities and programs in almost every state, has been responsible for the creation of new curriculum materials about most of the ethnic groups in America, and has resulted in hundreds of new resources being disseminated to tens of thousands of students at all grade levels and to community persons. (Author/RM)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Ethnic Heritage Studies Branch.
Authoring Institution: Michigan Ethnic Heritage Studies Center, Detroit.
Identifiers: Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Act
Note: For related documents, see ED 117 234, SO 012 506 514. Paper prepared for the Conference of the Inter-Collegiate Academic Council on Ethnic Studies (Cleveland, OH, November 30, 1979).