ERIC Number: ED182702
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: 0
A Brief Background of Non-formal Education and Two Applications in Reading.
Salinger, Terry S.
Nonformal educational programs, which are frequently characterized by their transmission of knowledge outside the limitations and role expectations of the traditional classroom, exist today as they have throughout the past. Among the common characteristics of the diverse nonformal educational programs throughout the world is their responsiveness to the immediate needs of a specific population or situation. One of the most successful literacy programs to date is the nonformal program developed in Brazil by Paulo Freire. Freire's program begins with the development of a core vocabulary based on a study of the life issues faced by the illiterate population to be taught, followed by the development and use of word cards and of pictures to stimulate discussion. In New Zealand, Sylvia Ashton-Warner rejected standard basal readers for her Maori students and developed a nonformal approach in which she solicited vocabulary words from each child and used the words as the basis for beginning reading, creative writing, spelling instruction, and reading and writing practice. Ashton-Warner also created reading books for Maori children. Among the aspects of Freire and Ashton-Warner's work that are indicative of many nonformal educational programs are a rejection of traditional materials, redefinition of the teacher role, flexibility, and response to students' emotional needs. The documented successes of nonformal approaches to reading instruction suggest the desirability of incorporating such nonformal approaches as the language experience approach in beginning reading programs. (GT)
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Freire (Paulo); Sylvia Ashton Warner
Note: Report prepared at New Mexico State University