ERIC Number: ED179782
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1980-Feb
Reference Count: 0
A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.
White, Charles M.
Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1) that the level of need within any sphere is directly related to the need's immediacy as perceived by the individual, and (2) immediacy of more basic needs will arise less frequently as the individual matures. These alternatives help the author take issue with Maslow, who, even though he supports growth motivation, fails to achieve a behavioral definition thereof. A relationship is demonstrated between the environment and individual behavior using concepts of "maturation needs" and relative deprivation theory. The author hypothesizes that (1) if adult attitudes of either acceptance (of an unchangeable present state) or resignation can be altered, the instinctive need for maturation toward higher needs may prompt individual action, and (2) similarly, gratification of lower needs will create a vacuum effect which the instinctive maturation process will attempt to fill. If education is truly accessible and offers to meet adult needs, then, the author maintains, the adult will opt for it. Thus, for educators, it is suggested that they learn to manipulate student perception of the environment such that learning and education offer reinforcement and needs gratification. (CP)
Publication Type: Opinion Papers; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Maslow (Abraham R)
Note: Paper presented at the Lifelong Learning Research Conference (College Park, Maryland, February 1-2, 1980)