ERIC Number: ED179291
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: 0
Studies of Memory and Metamemory in Toddlers.
DeLoache, Judy S.
Three studies investigating the emergence and early refinement of intelligent self-correction are described. Forty-one children ranging in age from 18 to 30 months served as subjects. Parents taught their children a hide-and-seek game in which the parent hid a toy in natural locations in the home while the child watched. After a 3- or 5-minute interval, the child was allowed to retrieve the hidden toy. In all three studies the children's baseline performance was excellent, with older children (25-30 months) generally doing somewhat better than younger ones (18-24 months). Certain mothers made five additional observations of their own children: two after 30-minute intervals, two after 60-minute intervals, and one after an overnight interval. The children found their toys with no errors on 88% of the trials after a 30-minute delay, 69% of the trials after an hour, and 77% of the trials after the overnight interval. In order to assess how certain the subjects were of their own memory, each subject received two surprise trials in which the toy was hidden as usual but was surreptitiously moved by the experimenter while the child was out of the room. Results showed that both the younger and the older children seemed certain of their memory for the correct location, but that they differed in their ability to re-evaluate the situation after failing to find the toy and in their flexibility in initiating alternative actions. The examples of logical searching on the part of the older children were interpreted as the exercise of a self-regulatory skill--the thoughtful correction of errors. (JMB)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (87th, New York, NY, September 1-5, 1979)