ERIC Number: ED176145
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978
Reference Count: 0
Loneliness and Spiritual Well-Being as Functions of Living Environment and Professional Status in Adult Women.
Paloutzian, Raymond F.; Ellison, Craig W.
Loneliness has been viewed as a consequence of situational and/or environmental factors. Previous research has suggested that urban vs. rural people, less vs. more religiously-oriented people, and housewives not employed outside the home experience the greatest sense of isolation and loneliness. To test this hypothesis, data were collected from 115 white middle-class adult married women. Assessment focussed on loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale), religiosity and spiritual well-being (a measure of existential well-being), situational factors such as living environment and employment status, and personal factors such as self esteem and interpersonal skills. Three subject groups were sampled to obtain data on urban vs. rural environment (San Francisco and Santa Barbara, CA, and Moscow, ID). Findings, though briefly elaborated, are surprising in that they do not support the generally-supported hypotheses that urban living fosters loneliness nor that housewives are more lonely than employed women. Urban living does apparently relate inversely to religiosity or spiritual well-being, with city living seen as a detriment to religious commitment and life satisfaction. Taken as a whole, the data suggest that the degree of loneliness/well-being is not directly affected by general environmental-situational factors, but may be related to personal attributes such as self esteem and personal social skills. (CKJ)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Psychological Association (59th, San Diego, California, April 5-8, 1979); Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility