ERIC Number: ED175912
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Toward Objectivity in Diagnosing Learning Disabilities: Refinement of Established Procedures.
Goodman, Marvin; Mina, Elias
Variability in diagnostic procedures and a lack of valid and reliable measures led to the development of a comprehensive battery, which incorporated an operational definition of learning disabilities. The battery consisted of forms for observing these functions: intelligence, academic achievement, gross and fine motor control, visual perception, visual-motor coordination, auditory and verbal functioning, attention, and developmental history. It called for the administration of eleven standardized tests which measure these functions. Outdated norms, frequently for a limited age range, and questionable face validity indicated the need for restandardizing norms. Norms were obtained on 21 widely-used psychological tests from 540 children, ages 6.0 to 11.11, with controls for IQ, socioeconomic status, and sex. The data supported an expected relationship between visual and auditory-verbal cognitive functions, as well as between memory and attention span. Few sex differences were noted on the various subtests. Certain tests did not discriminate adequately at specific age levels because of limited range or wide variability of scores. Socioeconomic level was confirmed as an important variable, particularly when assessing auditory-verbal functions. Factor analysis was employed because of the large number of significant correlations among the tests. Three main factors indicating learning disability emerged: reasoning, auditory sequencing, and sound blending. (Author/CP)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Diagnostic Tests, Educational Diagnosis, Educational Testing, Elementary Education, Learning Disabilities, Norms, Objectivity, Predictor Variables, Psychoeducational Methods, Psychomotor Skills, Screening Tests, Tables (Data), Test Construction, Test Reliability, Test Validity, Tests
Psychological and Assessment Services, 64 Ameer Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M6A 2L3 Canada ($5.00, payable to the North York Board of Education)
Publication Type: Reports - Research; Numerical/Quantitative Data; Tests/Questionnaires
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: North York Board of Education, Willowdale (Ontario).
Note: Computer printouts of tests norms (Appendix J) are marginally legible