ERIC Number: ED173359
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977
Reference Count: 0
Intelligence, IQ and Race--When, How and Why They Became Associated.
The history and use of intelligence testing are reviewed, with emphasis on the validity of intelligence tests for black populations. Different definitions of intelligence are summarized, followed by an historical review of intelligence testing. The work of Alfred Binet is discussed, as well as the validity and reliability of his scales. A discussion of the philosophy of Sir Francis Galton, which was continued by the early eugenics movement in America, is followed by remarks about contemporary research by Jensen, Herrnstein, and Shockley. Terman's revisions of Binet's scales, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and group tests such as the Army Alpha and Beta Scales, are described. Three models of socialization and black culture in America are presented: (1) deficit model--which suggests that black children are raised in a disadvantaged environment and are lacking in the skills and abilities considered to be indicators of success for the white middle class; (2) difference model--which recognizes racial and cultural differences, especially with respect to language; and (3) bicultural model--which argues that Afro-Americans are exposed to two different cultures. Problems associated with each of these models are outlined. A 17-page bibliography is appended. (GDC)
Descriptors: Bibliographies, Blacks, Cultural Influences, Culture Fair Tests, Heredity, Intelligence, Intelligence Differences, Intelligence Quotient, Intelligence Tests, Nature Nurture Controversy, Racial Differences, Social Influences, State of the Art Reviews, Test Bias, Test Validity
R & E Research Associates, Inc., 4843 Mission Street, San Francisco, California 94112 ($8.00)
Publication Type: Information Analyses
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: R and E Research Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.