ERIC Number: ED171762
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1976
Reference Count: N/A
Classroom Implications of Criterion-Referenced Tests. Curriculum--Instruction--Evaluation.
Popham, W. James
Criterion-referenced and norm-referenced tests are compared, and norm-referenced tests are found to have inadequacies as a basis for evaluation or instructional improvement. Disadvantages of norm-referenced tests, which measure a student's performance relative to the performance of other students, are: (1) mismatches between local curriculum and what is measured by standardized tests; (2) anxiety and frustration caused by imprecise knowledge of needed skills improvement; and (3) tendency to omit test items which measure the knowledge teachers consider most important, in order to obtain a large degree of response variance. Advantages of well-constructed criterion-referenced tests include pinpointing necessary curriculum changes; devising effective instructional sequences to attain needed competencies through task analysis, task description, and practice; and aiding in course evaluation. Criterion-referenced tests may be obtained from one of several sources: commercial test publishers, local school district production, or test development agencies. Attributes of well-constructed criterion-referenced tests include a description of what the measured performance means; a sufficient number of test items to measure each specified behavior, and reliability and validity. (MH)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Criterion Referenced Tests, Curriculum Evaluation, Educational Assessment, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Needs, Guides, Norm Referenced Tests, Standardized Tests, Test Results, Test Selection, Testing Problems
Instructional Objectives Exchange, P. O. Box 24095, Los Angeles, California 90024 ($2.95)
Publication Type: Guides - Non-Classroom
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.