ERIC Number: ED171460
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977-Jan
Reference Count: 0
Primary Education in the Rural Villages of Pakistan. 1976-1977.
Shah, Saeed Ullah; Eastmond, Jefferson N.
Data collection from 25 school districts throughout Pakistan and subsequent educational experiments in selected villages highlight 1976-77 research to identify causes of primary school dropout and to suggest primary education improvements to benefit Pakistan's rural poor, especially women. In the 416 villages studied only 1/3 of the total primary age population and 1/4 of the girls attend school, although certain provinces have consistently higher attendance than others. After their first year, nearly 50% of the girls and 40% of the boys drop out because of expense, parental attitude or illiteracy, lack of interest, illness, inadequate facilities, or purdah. Dropouts consistently rate lower on tests for personality, family and school success factors, skills, and knowledge. Attendance, the most significant barrier to expansion of the primary education system, could be improved by: inexpensive, locally acceptable solutions; reorganized administration; Ministerial cooperation; teacher aides; and reinforcing village development in general. Any educational improvement program coordinating school and non-school village factors with other village resources is likely to succeed. Educational experiments reflecting the conclusions are being conducted in 16 villages; more are planned. The extensive annexes and appendices contain detailed funding calculations for a proposed primary education project and a detailed project description. (SB)
Descriptors: Attendance, Cooperative Programs, Coordination, Developing Nations, Dropout Research, Dropouts, Economically Disadvantaged, Educational Administration, Educational Experiments, Educational Facilities, Educational Improvement, Educationally Disadvantaged, National Surveys, Primary Education, Research Design, Rural Development, Rural Education, Rural Population, Rural Schools, School Community Relationship, Womens Education
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan). Bureau of Educational Planning.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Parts may be marginally legible due to light print