ERIC Number: ED167315
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1977
Reference Count: N/A
John Collier's Crusade for Indian Reform: 1920-1954.
Philp, Kenneth R.
For many years federal government policy sought to break up Indian communal land holdings, destroy tribal communities, and absorb Indians into the mainstream of American Society. This policy changed dramatically in the 1920's and 30's, and John Collier stands at the forefront of those responsible. Collier questioned the wisdom of a policy which tried to turn the Indian into a white man; he felt tribal institutions should be preserved and studied because there was much that they could teach modern man in an industrialized society. An advocate of native rights, Collier crusaded to help the Pueblo Indians defeat the Bursum Bill. He founded the American Indian Defense Association, and as its executive director defended Indian religious dances and tribal self government, helped prevent the confiscation of oil and water power sites on the Navajo and Flathead reservations, and pushed for a Senate investigation of the Indian Bureau. As Commissioner of Indian Affairs under Roosevelt, he established an Indian "New Deal". His reforms included protection of Indian religious freedom, inclusion of Indians in public relief programs, codification of Indian laws, land conservation programs, and protection of tribal land holdings. He encouraged a sense of personal dignity and self respect among Indians and his goal of cultural independence for American Indians is felt today in the movements attending the growth of Indian nationalism. (Author/DS)
Descriptors: American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Cultural Pluralism, Culture Conflict, Federal Government, Federal Indian Relationship, Federal Programs, Genocide, History, Policy, Policy Formation, Religious Conflict, Self Determination, Tribal Sovereignty, Tribes, United States History
The University of Arizona Press, Box 3398, Tucson, Arizona 85722 (clothbound; $12.50; paperback; $6.50)
Publication Type: Historical Materials; Books
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Bureau of Indian Affairs; Collier (John); Cultural Preservation; New Deal; Tribal Government; Wheeler Howard Act