ERIC Number: ED161269
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1978-Apr
Reference Count: 0
The Dynamics of English as an International, Foreign, Second and Auxiliary Language.
Richards, Jack C.
From a consideration of variability in language-learner and language-user data, the concept of proficiency is considered in relation to models of second and foreign language learning. Proficiency is defined in relation to four separate dimensions: grammatical well-formedness, speech-act rules, functional elaboration, and code diversity. This provides a framework for considering two distinct models of language development: language learning viewed as movement along a developmental continuum, and language learning viewed as a non-developmental lectal continuum. These two models underlie the distinction between foreign language learning and second language learning. These are then related to contexts for language use that typically lead to four types or models of second and foreign language behavior: the instrumental, intergroup, integrative and interactional language models. These four functions are considered, and examples of their effects on the form of second and foreign language behavior are illustrated. Implications for second and foreign language learning theory and teaching methodology are discussed. (Author/AMH)
Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Cultural Influences, English, English (Second Language), Grammar, Interlanguage, Language Instruction, Language Proficiency, Language Research, Language Role, Language Styles, Language Usage, Language Variation, Learning Processes, Linguistic Borrowing, Pidgins, Second Language Learning, Sociolinguistics, Speech Communication, Syntax
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Auxiliary Language
Note: Paper presented at Conference on English as an International Auxiliary Language, East-West Center (Honolulu, Hawaii, April 1-15, 1978).