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50 Years of ERIC
50 Years of ERIC
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is celebrating its 50th Birthday! First opened on May 15th, 1964 ERIC continues the long tradition of ongoing innovation and enhancement.

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ERIC Number: ED110398
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1975
Pages: 25
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Personalized Systems of Instruction.
McGaw, Dickinson
Personalized systems of instruction (PSI), also called individualized instruction or contingency-managed instruction, were developed in the mid-1960s at the college level by Fred Keller, a reinforcement learning theorist. The Keller plan consists of five features: self-pacing, unit mastery, student tutors, optional motivational lectures, and learning from written material. The Keller plan appears to work well because it is consistent with at least ten educational principles for which there is some empirical support, such as active responding and specification of objectives. Keller's plan may be implemented in five stages: assessing entering behaviors, specification of course objectives, selecting resources and activities, establishing the course, and evaluating student performance. Systematic efforts at evaluating PSI are beginning to appear. The two most extensive evaluations show that PSI students perform better on all types of examinations, have longer retention, and have more positive attitudes towards courses than students taking conventional, structure-type courses. (Author/ND)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Keller (Fred S); Personalized System of Instruction
Note: Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American