ERIC Number: ED063887
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972
Reference Count: 0
Effects of Powerlessness on First Semester Grade Point Average.
Burbach, Harold J.; Richards, Herbert C.
This study examines the effects of both societal and university powerlessness on first-semester grades among a sample of university freshmen. Powerlessness is defined as the expectancy or probability held by the individual that his own behavior cannot determine the occurrence of the outcome or reinforcements that he seeks. The powerless scale was comprised of 8 items from Dean's alienation scale and 8 comparable items from the University Alienation Scale. A factor analysis of the scale data provided empirical grounds for distinguishing between the 2 sets of items and thus university and societal powerlessness were treated as independent variables. Factor scores were obtained on each dimension and all subjects who scored more than a standard deviation above or below the mean were selected for further analysis. The results of the analyses of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in academic achievement between high and low powerlessness subjects, regardless of whether societal or university powerlessness was considered. (Author/HS)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Virginia Univ., Charlottesville.