ERIC Number: ED063260
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Self Confrontation Counseling: A Selective Review With Implications for Teacher Education.
Fuller, Frances F.; And Others
This report reviews relevant educational literature and current practices to discover the relationship between personal change and self confrontation. Five areas of study include a) outcomes, b) help for whom, c) the helpful situation, d) the helpful treatment, and e) the helpful helper. The first section briefly describes the outcomes of self confrontation in three areas: self-esteem, realism, and anxiety. The next section studies self-concept, dogmatism, and body image indicating who needs help. The third section concerns the establishment of a secure "psychological safety" situation. The helpful treatment is divided into procedures most often used in counseling, including nonvideo procedures, audio versus video, and facilitative conditions. Finally the helpful helper summarizes the qualities required of a person to be helpful. Several conclusions were reached concerning self-confrontation. Self confrontation: 1) provides a powerful source of information about those aspects of the self which are perceived by others but not by self; 2) presents new information about feelings of which the individual is not aware, and which are probably temporarily disorganizing; 3) fosters placebogenic effects in a low threat situation; and 4) permits the subject to derive what he will from treatments with non-specific effects. Further investigations are recommended. An extensive bibliography is included. (MJM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.; Texas Univ., Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.
Authoring Institution: Texas Univ., Austin. Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.
Note: Paper presented at the 1972 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association