ERIC Number: ED058933
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971-Sep
Reference Count: 0
A Locus of Control Scale for Children.
Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Strickland, Bonnie R.
A study to produce a reliable, methodological precise measure of generalized locus of control of reinforcement, which can be group administered to a wide range of children, is reported. The measure produced, the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, is a paper and pencil instrument of 40 questions which are marked either yes or no. The scale was administered to 1017 mostly Caucasian elementary and high school students, grades 3 through 12, with all socioeconomic levels except the very highest represented. All mean intelligence scores were in the average range. Results of the test administration include: (1) the student's responses became more internal with age, and substantial individual differences occurred at the third-grade level; (2) all item-total relationships were moderate but consistent for all ages; (3) locus of control scores were not significantly related to social desirability; (4) it was tentaively concluded that internality is related significantly to higher occupational level, especially for males; and (5) there was a clear relationship between locus of control and achievement scores; all correlations were negative, with most of the significant correlations present in the male group. Two revised scales of 20 items and 21 items for primary and secondary groups, respectively, were constructed; the scale was also adopted for use with college and adult subjects. Eight tables present the study data, and samples of the 20 and 21 item scales are given. (DB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale
Note: Paper presented at the 79th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., September 3-7, 1971